Here are some facts about Sparta, the famous city-state of Ancient Greece. The History of Athens and Sparta. But Athens then was ruled by their own people. The first history of Athens was recorded around 3,400 years ago making it Europe's oldest capital and one of the oldest cities of the world. In fact, the Spartan culture differed so much from the rest of Greece that the Spartans fought in conflicts with the people of Athens, Thebes, and Corinth. Boys were encouraged to steal food. Sparta was ruled by two kings, who ruled until they died or were forced out of office. Athens was a patriarchal society despite having more liberal ideas. The difficulties of reconstructing the details of the agoge are acute: “invented tradition” has been unusually busy in that area. Perhaps what you don't know though, is that the city could have been named after Poseidon. People had to join the army in Sparta while Athenians had the opportunity to decide if they wanted to educate themselves or accede to the military. Proximity to the sea also encouraged Athens to build a strong naval fleet. Here are five facts about Spartan women that give you a glimpse on how a Spartan woman lived during those ancient times. Sparta was the only city state which had a full time army. If you reference any of the content on this page on your own website, please use the code below to cite this page as the original source. The lands it controlled were called Laconia and Messenia. After capturing and destroying the island Naxos, the coastal town Karystos and their first major target Eretria; the Persian forces landed at the bay of Marathon, around 25 miles (40 km) from Athens. SHARES. But after the Peloponnesian war, Sparta curiously found themselves becoming a formidable naval power. Sparta finally succumb to Corinth pressure because they are worried about Athens’ increasing power. During the Peloponnesian War, Sparta and Athens fought against each other. A poem of Tyrtaeus’s has traditionally been thought to echo both parts of that document, rider as well as Rhetra, but that relationship has recently been challenged. Even more important, there is very little genuine Spartan history written by Spartans (there was no Spartan Herodotus or Thucydides, though both men were deeply fascinated by Sparta, as indeed were most Greeks). Sparta was a warrior society in Greece that defeated it’s rival, Athens, in the Peloponnesian War that took place from 431 to 404 BC. The city center of Athens is only 15 sq miles or 39 sq kilometers. The battle of Sybota was the precursor of this war. 10 Facts about Ancient Sparta. Spartan government was oligarchic, which is a type of government ruled by a few people. Spartans are actually not from Athens, but originally from Laconia, an area in the South of Greece. Interesting Facts about Sparta. It is famous for its powerful army as well as its battles with the city-state of Athens during the Peloponnesian War. In the first phase of the war, Archimadus attacked Attica and provoke Athens to counter fight. It was never able to regain its military supremacy and was finally absorbed by the Achaean League in the 2nd century BC. The agoge and the Sparta that it produced can best be understood comparatively by reference to the kind of male initiation ceremonies and rituals found in other warrior societies. Athens is the capital and the largest city of Greece. The relationship of hatred and exploitation (the helots handed over half of their produce to Sparta) was the determining feature in Spartan internal life. Eventually, it almost looked like an Athenian Empire rather than an Alliance. Sparta: It is believed that in Sparta, the elders tested a newborn baby for deformities and if the baby was deemed unlikely to become a strong soldier, he was tossed into a gorge. Much less evidence survives about Sparta than Athens, but we do know that it was a military state. Sparta was surrounded by mountains which protected it from invaders. When Spartan was trying to attack again, Athens was hit by a plague that came from Egypt. The former because of their wealth and culture and the latter because of their military expertise. In contrast, while the Athenian army was almost as large as the Spartan, the Athenian navy was far more advanced and dominated the Mediterranean Sea. Athens vs. Sparta. As the name suggests, it was meant to last thirty years, and it set up a framework for a divided Greece that was led by both Athens and Sparta. The rider then dates from an even later period, when Spartan military reverses called for a reactionary readjustment of the balance of power. Preview. Sparta Government. Sparta was surrounded by mountains which protected it from invaders. Athens and Sparta are both famous and prosperous cities in Ancient Greece, which have also rivaled each other for years. ancient Greek civilization: Sparta and Athens. Both Athens and Sparta hold historic value for Greece and the world. Later on, it was named as Sparta. To find out more, see our, Athens Versus Sparta Facts & Worksheets: https://kidskonnect.com. Athens may have lost the battle, but their contributions became the most relevant in the modern world. We call it today as a democracy. Athens is spread across the central plain of Attica, often referred to as the Attica or Athens … This was also to prepare them to become wives and mothers of Spartan soldiers. Fascinating Facts About Athens. The Peloponnesian war started when Corinth, an ally of Sparta, engaged in a Civil War with Corcyra, an ally of Athens. The arrogant use of a nonmilitary weapon such as a stick actually added to the degradation. Sparta was the only city state which had a full time army. The marathon was named after a long run to Athens in 490 B.C. All men lived to fight for their kingdom. Though Athens and Sparta were located in the same country of Greece, the two were far enough apart to exhibit slightly different climates. Athens lost almost half of its people, including their leader Pericles. Corcyra which was a neutral power back then … The Ionian War finally sealed the victory of Sparta as they allied themselves to Persia and destroyed Athens’ fleet at Aegospotami, which signify the end of the war. Athens also built a wall surrounding their port. It has three branches: The Assembly, The Council of Elders, and the Kings. As for the alleged army reform, nothing can be said about it in detail. Xenophon, who was no enemy to Sparta, illuminated helot attitudes in his description of an episode called the “Kinadon affair,” which happened at the very beginning of the 4th century; it was suppressed with ruthless and effective speed. When Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War, it secured an unrivaled hegemony over southern Greece. Athens is statistically one of the lowest ranking capital cities when it comes to violent crime. 4. Women, children and slaves were considered below men. This is known as the Battle of Thermopylae. At the age of 18, Spartan boys became reserve members of the Spartan army. Click the Edit button above to get started. Sparta, on the other hand, was located in the Laconia region and exhibited a more temperate and dry climate. 431-404 BC: three decades of war between athens and sparta, sparta saw athens as power hungry, plague broke out in the middle of it so most of athens died off, pericles dies bc of plague, sparta wins but greece weakens sparta falls 1k. This admiration coexisted with the fact that if a married woman was childless, the state could order her to see if another man could do a better job in begetting children. Although it had been in existence since the tenth century BC, it became a truly dominant force in about 650 BC. All men over eighteen years old can exercise their right to vote and hold government positions as they will be full fledged citizens of Athens. Spartan warrior peers (homoioi) were henceforth subjected to a rigorous military training, the agoge, to enable them to deal with the Messenian helots, whose agricultural labours provided the Spartans with the leisure for their military training and life-style—a notoriously vicious circle. Sparta’s Dorianism was unacceptable to some of its still-independent neighbours, whose mythology remembered a time when the Peloponnese had been ruled by Achaean kings such as Atreus, Agamemnon, and his son Orestes (in a period modern scholars would call Mycenaean). The Council of Elders had up of twenty-eight people over sixty years of age. These were sons of Spartan mothers and non-Spartan fathers, procreated during the absence in Messenia of the Spartan warrior elite. Sparta, now a city in Laconia, was also a distinguished city in Ancient Greece known for its disciplined and military-trained people. It was unfortified and never fully synoecized in the physical sense. That view—which involves down-dating Theopompus and Polydorus to the 7th century from the 8th and still more arbitrarily attributing to them the activity presupposed by the Rhetra rather than the rider—does too much violence to the best chronological evidence (that of Thucydides and Herodotus), and a view in terms of 8th-century political synoecism should be preferred. The most important cities in ancient Greek were Sparta and Athens. Athenian democracy wasn’t quite as democratic as some people … Share on Facebook Share on Twitter. The Peloponnesian War summary is that it was Athens who had to pay the biggest price. Certainly there is some circularity in the usual reconstructions of one crucial corrupt line of the relevant poem. Athens and Sparta Facts. Athens and Sparta were known as rival cities of Greece. Athens was surrounded by hills that kept the city safe from attack while Sparta was situated at the top of the hill which gave it an attacking advantage over other cities. The First Peloponnesian War ended in an arrangement between Sparta and Athens, which was ratified by the “Thirty Years’ Peace” (winter of 446–445 BC). The city center of Athens is only 15 sq miles or 39 sq kilometers. They are just 95 miles away from each other, but their differences were vastly noticeable. Sparta was a military state and had a fulltime army to protect it from invaders. The first 10 years of the conflict are known as “Archidamian War,” after Spartan King Archidamus. Both men and women enjoyed different privileges in Sparta and Athens. Spartan women had a reputation among other Greeks of being chaste. Facts about Ancient Sparta 1: the military power. Ancient Greece Sparta. Sparta's military strength rested in its army, composed of the best-trained and most powerful warriors of ancient times. If it is right that this title merely denotes hereditary nobles with stated prerogatives, this was originally one of its less remarkable aspects. One consequence, already noted, was the export of an unwanted group, the Partheniai, to Taras. These city-states were very different. However, Sparta had only about 8,000 citizens, while Athens had between 40,000 and 100,000. Athens is the oldest capital in Europe. Their success lay not only … Athens, on the other hand, was the capital as well as the largest city in Greece. image: upload.wikimedia.org. The Athenian government consisted of the following: Surrounded by water, trading is their best bet to run its economy. Located in the southern part of Greece on the Peloponnisos peninsula, the city-state of Sparta developed a militaristic society ruled by two kings and an oligarchy, or small group that exercised political control. Learn. Athens and Sparta were known as rival cities of Greece. The Spartans were famous for being fearless, strong, and effective warriors. Flashcards. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Rise of Sparta: Among the city states of Greece, Sparta occupied a special position. If you’ve ever run (or would like to … They were also seen as a liability because their fathers needed to raise an endowment for them to marry well. In 478 BC, Greek city-states … Thus, because both parts of Athens' government had leaders who were elected, Athens is said to have been the birthplace of democracy. Write. Test. The leader Kinadon, according to Xenophon, said that the rebel groups, among whom helots are listed in first place, would have liked to eat the Spartans raw, and incidents such as this one explain why. Not ready to purchase a subscription? This alliance did not sit well with Sparta even though they had their own Peloponnesian League consisting of Corinth, Elis, Tegea, and other states. City Of Athens Facts 42. A 7th-century revolt by the Messenians (the “Second Messenian War”) was put down only after decades of fighting and with the help (surely) of the new hoplite tactics. Healthy Spartan men were trained to be in the military at the age of seven. Looking to fly yourself to Athens? Athens is spread across the central plain of Attica, often referred to as the Attica or Athens Basin. During the series of wars between Greece and Persia (known as the Greco-Persian Wars), Sparta was in command of the entire Greek army. Athens could have been named Poseidonopolis! The whole world knows the feat of three hundred Perhaps part of the motive was genuine ideological dislike of tyranny; Sparta was to exploit this role as late as 431, when it entered the great Peloponnesian War as would-be liberator of Greece from the new “tyranny” in Greece—namely, the Athenian empire. It had already, in the Dark Age, coerced into semisubject, or “perioikic,” status a number of its more immediate neighbours. Their government also believed that trading could bring in new ideas that can corrupt the citizen’s minds. Their ideals, principles, and the way they tackle challenges are so contrasting it created animosity between them. Spartan citizen was the top of social classes in the Spartan. Inconsistency of diplomatic decision making on the part of Sparta is, however, always explicable for a reason already noticed—its helot problem. Each member ensured that Spartan enemies are their enemies and allowed Sparta domination over them. 3. The best reconstruction is hardly more than a creative fabrication from Hellenistic evidence that dealt with a Spartan religious festival but had nothing straightforwardly to do with the army at all. The two city-states fought from 431 BC to 404 BC with Sparta eventually triumphing over Athens. Ideal to be shown as an opener to the lesson, comes complete with task/activity at the end. Gravity. Fun Facts About Ancient Greece. Tyrtaeus wrote poetry in elegiac couplets (alternating hexameter and pentameter lines) intended for symposia. 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