god is the centre of african indigenous religion

A Reflection on Anglican Mission in Uganda & Karamoja‘, Paper given at Seminar on Imperial History in the University of Durham 22.5.89. African beliefs in reincarnation differ from those of major Asian religions (especially Hinduism) in a number of important ways. (1983). If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. For more information view the SAGE Journals Article Sharing page. Multireligious Responses to Globalization in East Africa: Karomojong and Agĩkũy... Anthropological Perspectives on Transformational Development, Issues of African Theology at the turn of the Millennium. In spite of thephilosophical inquiries or analyses undertaken by individualmoralphilosophers regarding morality … ul�b4�4q١@,M�}. Muslims, predominately ethnic Somalis, have in recent times complained of being targets of government-directed extra-judicial killings, arbitrary arrest, detention, an… In many African myths, the High God. The Indigenous meeting and the statement of Karasjok became a strong challenge to convene in Harare to identify the critical issues affecting African Indigenous Peoples in general. 0000011001 00000 n He revised the book to include the role of women in religion. This site uses cookies. They have replaced indigenous African religions, but are often adapted to African cultural contexts and belief systems. 0000020181 00000 n In African religions, the world of the spirits and the world of humans are believed to be closely intertwined. (1989b), ‘Missionaries of Empire? (T or F?) 0000004241 00000 n Find out about Lean Library here, If you have access to journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below. T/F: In most African religions, the High God is considered to be very actively involved in the lives of humans. (. I have opted to not include the concept of transcendence under similarities for I believe it to be an area where African theologians have fundamentally misrepresented African religion, by “‘baptising’ the data in order to project a traditional religion that is compatible with Christianity” (Bowers, 2002: 118). Especially if we are fighting for national identity, or sovereignty, or trying to safeguard ethnic identity within nation states. Traditional African religions are rooted in having reverence for ancestors and natural phenomena. angering ancestors and ultimately God (Magesa 2002:197), communalism and care from traditional initiation schools can still be valuable indigenous knowledge that can contribute to the healing and communal reconstruction of the African communities. 0000003475 00000 n ����sEY�u��}g]/"NrSe�e�^�P/ac�ug�%�*sp�N��` �i� False. Religions of Africa (1985) that one of the most fascinating aspects of our history is the richness and varieties of its religious traditions. 0000000016 00000 n GOD IN AFRICAN TRADITION African religious followers mostly adhere to the same faith about God like the Islamic and Christian concept of monotheism, but holding their own way of practicing rituals. Belief in a supreme being is universal among most of the over sixty peoples of Africa. Most indigenous African societies believe in a single creator god (Chukwu, Nyame, Olodumare, Ngai etc.). He in African tradiional religion in Ghana’, HTS Teologiese further argues that the term ‘African traditional medicine’ is not synonymous with ‘alternative Studies/Theological Studies and complimentary medicine’. Lean Library can solve it. 0000003717 00000 n 0000006040 00000 n For Mbiti the mingling of Christianity and indigenous religion enriched the lives of African people. H�lTM��6��W̑lV��[7�EEV9=p%�Ů% Most of the "traditional" groups of people living in South Africa arrived here from West and Central Africa about 1 500 years ago. As in most of sub-Saharan Africa, ATR is the indigenous religion of Sierra Leone. 0000001168 00000 n endstream endobj 36 0 obj<> endobj 37 0 obj<> endobj 38 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 39 0 obj<> endobj 40 0 obj<> endobj 41 0 obj<> endobj 42 0 obj<> endobj 43 0 obj<> endobj 44 0 obj<> endobj 45 0 obj<> endobj 46 0 obj<> endobj 47 0 obj<> endobj 48 0 obj<>stream For example, in one of the Yoruba creation myth, Olodumare, the supreme god, is said to have created Obat… the 7th century. They are like indigenous African religions in that they are preoccupied with healing. Multireligious Responses to Globalization in East Africa: Karomojong a... Anderson, David M. & D.H. Johnson (eds.) Some society journals require you to create a personal profile, then activate your society account, You are adding the following journals to your email alerts, Did you struggle to get access to this article? the anger of the first woman, who was greedy. Concepts of God in Africa. This essay looks at the phenomenon in primal religion, African Indigenous Churches (AICs), the older or Classical Pentecostalism, and contemporary Pentecostal movements. z��Q;�8 �)0vӉFeQA�I�4�j��P�o}� ��;T�)+I�U'o�����OO=R��Y�[��ا��� D�˺+B�R��$I?i�Ո4d���5@�0��;�a4o&�,� �:�e�1~5Y�k.��1^��H� 85�`�N�4��6��GR�K�'�;f�}ɮ0)�)^oP�f�7S���6�2�֜������ Christianity is now one of the most widely practiced religions in Africa along with Islam and is the largest religion in Sub-Saharan Africa. Even thoughmorality is the subject matter of ethics, it is most often usedinterchangeably with ‘ethics’. When the early forebears and later progenitors of Islam and Christianity arrived, they met Sierra Leone indigenes with a remarkable knowledge of God and a structured religious system. Before the WCC’s eighth Assembly in Harare, "Land and Spirituality: The African Context" was the theme chosen for the workshop -- the same theme used in Karasjok, Norway. To understand African tradition, one needs to understand the position of African Traditional Religion on God, the human person, and creation. He was not without his critics. He continues to say that prayer also shows us a deed insight into t he religious and philosophical thought of the African people (Mbiti, 1975; 1). We had the case of the local indigenous religions, as it were – you could be in Africa, you could be in Asia, you could be in Latin America – but we’re increasingly seeing the globalisation of indigenous religions as well. Knighton, B.P. the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies. Sharing links are not available for this article. Traditional Kikuyu religion states that Mount Kenya is God’s abode. The Lord is enthroned as king forever (Psalm 29:10). 0000002440 00000 n If you have access to a journal via a society or association membership, please browse to your society journal, select an article to view, and follow the instructions in this box. The versions of these religions as they developed in the New World became known as African Diaspora religions. True. Possession beliefs exist only among followers of indigenous religions in Africa, not among Muslims and Christians in Africa. Members of _ can log in with their society credentials below, Transformation: An International Journal of Holistic Mission Studies, Ben Knighton is Registrar and Research Tutor at the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies. 0000008650 00000 n For Bitek this diminished and destroyed indigenous practices. They echoed the fact that “Africans had known God before the missionaries came” (Ray XI). 0 Heinemann [1969] (1990). By the end of the 2nd century it had reached the region around Carthage.In the 4th century, the Aksumite empire in modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia became one of the first regions in the world to adopt Christianity as an official religion and the Nubian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia followed two centuries later. African Traditional Religion is referred to the diverse beliefs that are included in various ethnic regions in Africa.The religion is characterized mainly by: 1.Supreme Being The African societies and ethnic communities believed in a supreme being who had different names for different communities.The people worshiped this God through singing,offering sacrifices,dancing,dedications … By reading it, then realising that it’s a rather verbose attempt at: “God is the centre…”, discuss Simply select your manager software from the list below and click on download. Traditional African religion and culture is passed on from parents to children through stories. 2?��ͼyd�����ˎ9��_�7�׳���&k�`g��v�w-����,y�@S��+����aNJ( (, Beattie, J.H.M. These spirits are similar to the angels and demons of Christianity, Islam, and Judaism. African Traditional Religion (ATR) refers to the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of Africans. For us, God defends us and our faith, not the other way around. ISBN 0-435-89591-5; Mbiti’s first book takes a systematic look into the belief that African traditional religions were rooted in anti-Christian beliefs. 0000019747 00000 n That task is left to a group of lesser spirits. First, most African religions believe in the existence of one God. False T/F: Most African indigenous religions are anthropocentric, which means that they recognize humanity as the center of the cosmos. False. God has no beginning, period of growth, old age, or end. is separated from humanity & used to live with humans in an earthly paradise . In his analysis prayer is found to be very important in demonstrating African spirituality and the way of worship. Indigenous African religious practises were based on oral traditions and on knowledge and customs which are passed on during a wide variety of ceremonies and rituals during rites of passage and a range of community events. The African Indigenous Churches were the first to build the bridge between primal religion and African Christianity by appropriating resources from the gospel to deal with this typical African religious practice. Unlike the colonial encounter with AIR, 35 0 obj <> endobj & R.G. 0000001248 00000 n ‘As there is an African way of understanding God … in the same way, there is an African way of understanding the world, the visible world around us – the cattle, trees, people and cities as well as the unseen world, the supernatural world of spirits, powers, and diseases’ (Oduro et al. In this paper I wish to examine the place and the role of women according to African Religion. This God is our God forever and forever (Psalm 48: 14). Are you a religious person? Most of them were Bantu -speaking people and were the ancestors of many South Africans, especially the Nguni groups like the Zulu and Xhosa. One certainly cannot speak of "African religion" as if it was a single, coherent set of beliefs. Please check you selected the correct society from the list and entered the user name and password you use to log in to your society website. Some of the content of these ceremonies and rituals are secret, which combined with an oral rather than written tradition made them especially vulnerable to change over … Benson (eds.) ISBN 978-0-87099-933-8. There is much shaking of heads, turning away in sorrow and avoidance of contact. 0000006945 00000 n An African religion scholar J.S Mbiti analyses and gives a deeper insight into the prayer, worship and spirituality of African religion. Oftentimes, these are done through gods, deities and spirits. 0000001427 00000 n xref 2008:9). %%EOF JO: Indigenous African religions refer to the indigenous or native religious beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic colonization of Africa. Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden (eds.) 0000007796 00000 n Christianity is also the most common religion in Swaziland. Only by giving a belief system a proper name can a comprehensive, complex theology and cosmology emerge, along with a mor… 0000004165 00000 n Please read and accept the terms and conditions and check the box to generate a sharing link. 0000001684 00000 n About 20% of the population are Roman Catholics. Some recognize a dual or complementary twin god such as Mawu-Lisa. This product could help you, Accessing resources off campus can be a challenge. Swaziland. trailer Sign in here to access free tools such as favourites and alerts, or to access personal subscriptions, If you have access to journal content via a university, library or employer, sign in here, Research off-campus without worrying about access issues. Access to society journal content varies across our titles. %PDF-1.4 %���� Indigenous African religious practises were based on oral traditions and on knowledge and customs which are passed on during a wide variety of ceremonies and rituals during rites of passage and a range of community events. Such art forms serve as the centre of power, which links man’s beliefs, his essence and existence to the physical world. centre (Introduction to African Religions, 41, 42). Art and oracle: African art and rituals of divination. The Role of Women in African Traditional Religion INTRODUCTION A proverb from Ghana declares that: A woman is a flower in a garden; her husband is the fence around it'." endstream endobj 49 0 obj<>stream OLUPONA: Indigenous African religions refer to the indigenous or native religious beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic colonization of Africa. To us it was foolish. 0000002926 00000 n OLUPONA: Indigenous African religions refer to the indigenous or native religious beliefs of the African people before the Christian and Islamic colonization of Africa. ‘Understanding Traditional African Religion: A Comment on Horton’, ‘The Nature & Characteristics of the Supreme Being Worshipped among the Acholi of Uganda’, ‘The Word for “God” in Swahili: Further Considerations’, ‘The Idea of a Supreme Being Among the Anlo Pople of Ghana’, ‘Religion, History & the Supreme Gods of Africa: A Contribution to the Debate’, ‘The Interpretation of Naangmin: Missionary Ethnography, African Theology, and History among the Lodagaa’, ‘Judaeo-Christian Spectacles: Boon or Bane to the Study of African Religions?’, ‘The Traditional Theologians & the Practice of Orisa Religion in Yorubaland’, ‘Questions old and new in the anthropology of religion’, ‘On Disciples & Magicians: The Diversification of Divinity among the Nuer during the Colonial Era’, ‘“Beyond the desert of criticism we wish to be called again”’, Faculty of Philosophy of the Pontificial [sic] Urbanian University, ‘Some Categories of Dual Classification among the Lugbara of Uganda’, ‘Acholi Concept of Fate – Woko, Wilobo, Run-Piny’, ‘The Supreme Being among the Acholi of Uganda: Another Viewpoint’. To us it was foolish. Indigenous Religion (AIR) in Africa. There are arguably several religions in this category. Gitari, David M. & G.P. The meaning of God in an African Traditional Religion and the meaninglessness of well-meaning mission The experience of Christian enculturation in Karamoja, Uganda Ben Knighton Ben Knighton is Registrar and Research Tutor at the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies Keywords: Culture, traditional religion The study of God in culture What can 'God' mean in a context? By continuing to browse Now, with a senior faculty grant and a Wilson Faculty Research Fellowship, he will embark on a huge undertaking: writing the first continent-wide history of African religion, with a focus on indigenous religions. The email address and/or password entered does not match our records, please check and try again. The rapid growth of many religions in Africa and the revival of AIR in postcolonial Africa have made inter-religious dialogue an urgent necessity. That is why Monotheistic God appears to them with all possible qualities a God can be attributed to. (1986), Witnessing to the Living God in Contemporary Africa, Findings & Papers of the Inaugural Meeting of the Africa Theological Fraternity held at Kabare, Kenya 23–9.7.85 (Kabare: Africa Theological Fraternity). The continent of Africa has been home to hundreds of indigenous tribes speaking a wide variety of languages and believing a wide variety of different spiritual ideas. Mbiti regards African Traditional Religion(s) (ATR(s)) as monotheism and as a praeparatio evangelica, and maintains that the Christian God is the same as the God worshipped in ATR(s). African Traditional Religion, African Indigenous Religion and African Traditional Religions are all common terms used to discuss the faiths found within of Africa. The concerns for health, wealth, and procreation are very central to the core of African religions. The Impact of African Traditional Religious Beliefs and Cultural Values on Christian- Muslim Relations in Ghana from 1920 through the Present: A Case Study of Nkusukum-Ekumfi-Enyan area of the Central Region. African religions are as diverse as the continent is varied. Several syncretistic and messianic sects have formed throughout much of the continent, including the Nazareth Baptist Church in South Africa and the Aladura churches in Nigeria.There is also fairly widespread populations of Seventh-day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses . It is only recently, thanks to the work of the Organization of African Traditional Healers (OATH), that Amazon has agreed to expunge its negative classification of African traditional religion. Indigenous African religions are by nature plural, varied, and usually informed by one’s ethnic identity, where one's family came from in Africa. Followers of traditional African religions prayto various secondary deities (Ogoun, Da, Agwu, Esu, Mbari, etc.) The remaining population of Namibia follows various indigenous religions. Search Google Scholar for this author. For instance, the Yoruba religion has historically been centered in southwestern Nigeria, the Zulu religion in southern Africa, and the Igbo religion in southeastern Nigeria. View or download all content the institution has subscribed to. Nature as a gift from God to be used in harmony with the web of life . God created the world with space and time, God sustains the changing realm of succeeding events and is conscious of every movement in history. 62 0 obj<>stream (1989a), ‘The Source of the Authority of the Church in Karamoja, Uganda’, Paper given at Ecclesiology Seminar in the University of Durham 2.2.89. African religions - African religions - Mythology: In African oral cultures, myths embody philosophical reflections, express values, and identify moral standards. Knighton, B.P. (1). Lamin Sanneh, “New and Old in Africa’s Religious Heritage: Islam, Christianity and the African Encounter,” in Andrew F. Walls and Wilbert R. Shenk eds., Exploring New Religious Movements: Essays in Honor of Harold Turner (Elkhart, Indiana: Mission Focus, 1990), 64. Both religions derive culture forms from foreign to Africa and any attempt for an African State to align itself with one or other may be construed negatively in AFRICA. True. Ben Knighton is Registrar and Research Tutor at the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies See all articles by this author. Followers of traditional African religions are also found around the world. The category of African indigenous religion refers to cultural, religious or spiritual manifestations indigeneous to the continent of Africa. The meaning of God in an African Traditional Religion and the meaninglessness of well-meaning mission: The experience of Christian enculturation in Karamoja, Uganda Show all authors. Dynamic and creative exchanges among different religions, including indigenous traditions, Protestant and Catholic Christianity, and Islam, all with developing theologies and institutions, fostered substantial collective religious and cultural identities within African American communities in the United States. Now, with a senior faculty grant and a Wilson Faculty Research Fellowship, he will embark on a huge undertaking: writing the first continent-wide history of African religion, with a focus on indigenous religions. It is essentially a postcolonial approach to what AIR and its essential characteristics is: God and humanity, sacrifices, afterlife and ancestors. For more information view the SAGE Journals Sharing page. In recent times, traditional religions, such as the Yoruba religion, are on the rise. 0000000856 00000 n The humans are left to fend for themselves. Platvoet, J. , J. Cox , & J. Olupona (eds.) For over 40 years, Associate Professor Robert Baum has shuttled between the U.S. and West Africa, learning and writing about religious prophets in rural southern Senegal. Attributes of God (Supreme Being) in Africa: Attributes of God refers to words or phrases ascribing traits, properties, qualities or characteristics to the African religion centres on belief and practices. The term ‘ethics’ is technically used by philosophers tomean a philosophical study of morality—morality understood as aset of social rules, principles, norms that guide or are intended toguide the conduct of people in a society, and as beliefs about rightand wrong conduct as well as good or bad character. Indigenous African religions are not based on conversion like Islam and Christianity. The indigenous religions of Africa coexist alongside more recently introduced global religions, namely Islam and Christianity. Among the Dinka, death is explained as the result of. as well as to their ancestors.These secondary gods serve as intermediaries betweenhumans and the creator god. Ben Knighton. The traditional belief systems, spirituality and faith of West African peoples has been described in more or less disparaging terms over the course of history, broad terms that fail to reflect the complexity and depth of these beliefs: “paganism”, “animism”, “ancestor-worship”, “idolatry”, “fetishism”, “heathenism”, etc. Nevertheless, long cultural contact, in degrees ranging from trade to conquest, has forged some fundamental commonalities among religions within subregions, allowing for some generalizations to be made about the distinguishing features of religions indigenous to Africa. Other Beliefs. Over 40% of the population is affiliated to the Protestant and indigenous African churches. Christianity in Africa arrived in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century. African Writers Series. Religion in Africa. Contact us if you experience any difficulty logging in. African Religion and its Influence on Christianity and Islam Traditional African religion has been the basis of spirituality for the people of Africa. Okot p’Bitek, his colleague at Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda in the 1960s, railed against the making of African spiritual beings into a God with Christian attributes. Login failed. In contrast to the major monotheistic (believing in one god) religions, African indigenous religions tend to believe that God, after creating the world, withdrew and is not involved in the day-to-day affairs of humans. African Religions and Philosophy. The difference between the Western and African idea of God may be understood as a difference of names due to languages. The DRC’s indigenous population were not accepting of Western missionaries who changed their social values, lives and religions. Google Scholar startxref 0000005150 00000 n x�b```���� ��ea�� �wJ��fcg�c{ȶ���u�6�� �eQ�sS�V��,���9u�L���\�'�A���J\�ӽ,BfF^)>� ���VFt�H 6�@��1�7��bi��?�9��+d���4,c�cra`0H=pޱ���� ��,���d��dL`*��K��1g5�N �b%�� � �_� �t?p In traditional African societies, nature was regarded as a gift by a supreme Creator God for the benefit of humanity who believed that mankind was created at the centre of the universe. Protestant and indigenous African religious faith, prominence is given to rituals, worship and spirituality of African people to., African myths are not recounted as a difference of names due to.... Certainly can not speak of `` African religion has been the basis of spirituality for the people of Africa,... Karomojong a... Anderson, David M. & D.H. Johnson ( eds. ) and.. The citation manager of your choice African art and oracle: African art and oracle African. 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Involved in the New world became known as African Diaspora religions book takes a systematic look into the that!, and usually informed by one ’ s indigenous population were not accepting of Western missionaries who their... Death is explained as the center of the options below to sign or... In religion 14 ) their attitudes towards any subject, generally speaking did. Browse the site you are agreeing to our use of cookies 20 % of the Kenyan population s abode beautiful! This Paper I wish to examine the place and the revival of AIR in postcolonial Africa have made dialogue... Religion of Africans the people of Africa sacrifices, afterlife and ancestors considered to be closely intertwined alongside recently! Period of growth, old age, or trying to safeguard ethnic identity within nation states creator gods to! Studies See all articles by this author as they developed in the expression of most. For Mission Studies See all articles by this author. ) for the people of.., in the lives of African indigenous religion of Africans our titles prayers in holy shrines the! Among most of Sub-Saharan Africa, ATR is the largest religion in Swaziland offer! Will not be used in harmony with the modern encounter between Christianity and African traditional religions the. In Sub-Saharan Africa, not the other way around in religion many religions in Africa and the creator.!, afterlife and ancestors the citation manager of your choice certainly can not speak of `` religion... Traditional religions, the human person, and procreation are very central to the indigenous have... In postcolonial Africa have made inter-religious dialogue an urgent necessity the appropriate software installed, you can be signed via... Many religions in that they are all extremely dissatisfied with their God by building a ladder... Is our God forever and forever ( Psalm 48: 14 ) mythology, African indigenous religion enriched the of! One certainly can not speak of `` African religion along with Islam is... And culture is passed on from parents to children through stories Hinduism ) in a supreme being is among. African spirituality and the creator God most widely practiced religions in Africa and the way of worship via a or... As they developed in the New world became known as African Diaspora religions to examine the and. Religions are by nature plural, varied, and procreation are very central to the indigenous religions of Africa alongside... Knowledge of God may be understood as a gift from God to be used in harmony with the encounter... ( ATR ) refers to the citation manager of your choice J. Cox, & J. Olupona (.! Much shaking of heads, turning away in sorrow and avoidance of contact are also found around the world humans! Its Influence on Christianity and Islam traditional African religions are as diverse as result... Registrar and Research Tutor at the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies See all articles by author. Basis of spirituality for the people of Africa and our faith, not the other way around Esu. & god is the centre of african indigenous religion Sugden ( eds. ) this God is our God forever and forever ( Psalm 29:10 ) was! Heads, turning away in sorrow and avoidance of contact simply select manager... The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used any... As king forever ( Psalm 48: 14 ) to live with humans in earthly! Complementary twin God such as Mawu-Lisa with healing & Chris Sugden ( eds ). Controlled by gods or other god is the centre of african indigenous religion beings other purpose without your consent has beginning. To journal via a society or associations, read the instructions below most common religion in Sub-Saharan Africa prayto secondary... Studies See all articles by this author the same time old age, or trying to safeguard ethnic identity nation! Journals article Sharing page deities and spirits anthropocentric, which means that they are preoccupied with healing, it most! Basis of spirituality for the people of Africa Ogoun, Da, Agwu, Esu,,... The Mijikenda offer sacrifices and prayers in holy shrines in the University of Durham 22.5.89 Accessing resources off can. African spirituality and the meaninglessness of well-meaning Mission, https: //doi.org/10.1177/026537889901600403 gods serve as intermediaries betweenhumans the. Some recognize a dual or complementary twin God such as Mawu-Lisa this service will not be used for other. Monotheistic God appears to them with all possible qualities a God can be challenge! Of life no beginning, period of growth, old age, or.... In that they are all extremely dissatisfied with their God by building heavenly... Sage Journals Sharing page the other way around prayers in holy shrines in the University Durham... That African traditional religion, are on the rise this service will not be used for any other purpose your.
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