family of colocasia

Kalo is the Hawaiian name for the taro plant. Most of these herbaceous species in the arum or aroid family (Araceae) that are offered as ornamentals belong to the genera Colocasia, Alocasia, and Xanthosoma, although there are others that have similar appearance and growth habits. [5] It is 芋 (yu) or 芋頭 (yu tou) in Chinese; 芋 (POJ: ō͘) or 芋頭 (ō͘-á) in Taiwanese Hokkien;[6] and vasa in Paiwan,[7] and tali in Amis. The corm is grated into a paste and deep-fried to make a fritter called Acra. Compared to potato chips, taro chips are harder and have a nuttier flavor. In Dakshin Kannada in Karnataka, it is used as a breakfast dish, either made like fritters or steamed. Its leaves are used to wrap fish and prawns for steaming to make bhapa mach (steamed fish). In Vietnam, there is a large variety of taro plants. 2000. These herbs are cultivated extensively, especially in Melanesia and Polynesia, as a staple carbohydrate. "Rain, pests and disease shrink taro production to record low". The root (corm) of taro is known as pindalu (पिँडालु) and petioles with leaves are known as karkalo (कर्कलो) and also as Gava (गाभा). Family. In Nagaland, the leaves are dried, powdered, kneaded into a dough and baked into biscuits. Taro is the pre-eminent crop of the Cook Islands and surpasses all other crops in terms of land area devoted to production. Most commonly it is boiled in tamarind water until tender, then diced into cubes which are stir-fried in mustard oil with fenugreek leaves. Family: Araceae ; Plant Type: Perennial, Evergreen ; Key features: Dramatic foliage Taro, Colocasia esculenta, is a tropical plant grown primarily as a vegetable food for its edible corm, and secondarily as a leaf vegetable. "Baby" kolokasi is called "poulles": after being fried dry, red wine and coriander seed are added, and then it is served with freshly squeezed lemon. When kalo was brought to Hawaiʻi, there were about 300 varieties (about 100 remain). Paan is often cooked with fermented soy beans to make curries. Taro stolons or stems, kochur loti (কচুর লতি), are also favored by Bangladeshis and cooked with shrimp, dried fish or the head of the ilish fish. As in other Asian countries, taro is a popular flavor for ice cream in Thailand.[68]. Hao, Sean. Leaves are up to 40 cm × 24.8 cm (15 3⁄4 in × 9 3⁄4 in) and sprout from the rhizome. [52] The root is eaten boiled, as is standard across Polynesia. This meal is still prepared for special occasions and especially on Sunday. Bun long is used for making taro chips. [7] Like other members of the family, the plant contains an irritant which causes intense discomfort to the lips, mouth and throat. [80] Fellsmere, Florida, near the east coast, was a farming area deemed perfect for growing dasheen. The stems are also used in soups such as canh chua. Ala was widely grown in the southern atolls of Addu Atoll, Fuvahmulah, Huvadhu Atoll, and Laamu Atoll and is considered a staple even after rice was introduced. The genus Colocasia contains slightly more than a dozen species with several new ones being described recently. For example, the newer name for a traditional Hawaiian feast (luau) comes from the kalo. Timber Press, Oregon. In Shimla, a pancake-style dish, called patra or patid, is made using gram flour. The lengthy growing time of this crop usually confines it as a food during festivities much like Pork although it can be preserved by drying out in the sun and storing it somewhere cool and dry to be enjoyed out of harvesting season. Taro roots can be used for medicinal purposes, particularly for treating insect bites. It is known locally as malanga (also malanga coco) and dasheen in Belize and Costa Rica, quiquizque in Nicaragua, and as otoe in Panama. Gram flour, salt, turmeric, red chili powder made into paste and stuffed inside a roll of green leaves. Native Introduced Native and Introduced. Lard or fried onion oil is then added for fragrance. Through migration to other countries, the inhame is found in the Azorean diaspora. The species Colocasia esculenta is invasive in wetlands along the American Gulf coast, where it threatens to displace native wetland plants. They are triangular-ovate, sub-rounded and mucronate at the apex, with the tip of the basal lobes rounded or sub-rounded. They are native to swamps and other moist areas and can be used in large aquatic containers in the garden or in the ground in moist soil. Lū is the Tongan word for the edible leaves of the taro plant (called talo in Tonga), as well as the traditional dish made using them. A loʻi is a patch of wetland dedicated to growing kalo (taro). In Fujian cuisine, it is steamed or boiled and mixed with starch to form a dough for dumpling. C. esculenta and other members of the genus are cultivated as ornamental plants, or for their edible corms, a traditional starch staple in many tropical areas. Another popular traditional Taiwanese snack is taro ball, served on ice or deep-fried. At around 3.3 million metric tons per year, Nigeria is the largest producer of taro in the world. This is a steamed dish similar to patrode, but with gram flour instead of the rice flour used in patrode. In Cyprus, Colocasia has been in use since the time of the Roman Empire. Species. The Hawaiian laulau traditionally contains pork, fish, and lu'au (cooked taro leaf). Araceae/Arum Family Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott KCB Flowering spathe. It is called cocoyam in Nigeria, Ghana and Anglophone Cameroon, macabo in Francophone Cameroon, mankani in Hausa language, koko and lambo in Yoruba, and ede in Igbo language. This stew is made with pork and beef, shrimp, or fish, a souring agent (tamarind fruit, kamias, etc.) As a staple food, it is steamed and eaten with a spicy chutney of green chilies, tamarind, and shallots. In Mithalanchal (Bihar), the leaf is called airkanchan and is curried. This was largely due to the decline of trade and commerce with Egypt, previously controlled by Rome. In Portuguese, it is known as inhame;[12] and in Spanish it is called malanga. In fact, the word for "food" in Urap is a compound of these two words.[64]. The leaves of only two variety, kolakana ala and kalu alakola are eaten. The leaves and stalks are often traditionally preserved to be eaten in dry season as dawl rëp bai.[71][72]. In Kerala, a state in southern India, taro corms are known as chembu kizhangu (ചേമ്പ് കിഴങ്ങ്) and are a staple food, a side dish, and an ingredient in various side dishes like sambar. Family: Araceae – Arum family Genus: Colocasia Schott – colocasia Species: Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott – coco yam Taro has remained popular in the Canary Islands. As a result of this, Taro was not a part of the traditional diet due to the infertile soil and have only become a staple today through importation from other islands (Taro and Cassava cultivars are usually imported from Fiji or Samoa). By ancient Hawaiian custom, fighting is not allowed when a bowl of poi is "open". Then steamed and in small portions, as well as fried in the deep fryer. Colocasia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Palpifer murinus and Palpifer sexnotatus. In Asia, average yields reach 12.6 t/ha (5.6 short ton/acre). Colocasia esculenta or also known as taro or gabi was first described by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753 as two separate species- Arum colocasia and Arum esculentum. Today it is known as kolokas in Turkish or kolokasi (κολοκάσι) in Greek, which comes from the Ancient Greek name κολοκάσιον (kolokasion) for lotus root. The female portion is at the fertile ovaries intermixed with sterile white ones. Modern versions of the dessert include the addition of coconut cream and sweet corn. Neuters grow above the females, and are rhomboid or irregular orium lobed, with six or eight cells. Taro is one of the most ancient cultivated crops. Cocoyam is often boiled, fried, or roasted and eaten with a sauce. It was used in place of potatoes and dried to make flour. It is usually cooked with celery and pork or chicken, in a tomato sauce in casserole. Common preparations include cooking with curry, frying, and boiling. Taro chips are often used as a potato-chip-like snack. Jivan hamro karkala ko pani jastai ho (जीवन हाम्रो कर्कलाको पानी जस्तै हो) means, "Our life is as vulnerable as water stuck in the leaf of taro". They re-grew quickly from their roots. The tuber, satoimo, is often prepared through simmering in fish stock (dashi) and soy sauce. Taro can be grown in paddy fields where water is abundant or in upland situations where water is supplied by rainfall or supplemental irrigation. Taro was probably first native to the lowland wetlands of Malaysia, where it is called taloes. Young taro leaves and stems can be eaten after boiling twice to remove the acrid flavor. The previous low of 1997 was 5.5 million pounds (2,500 t). The prominence of the crop there has led it to be a staple of the population's diet. ", "The dasheen: a tropical root crop for the South / [by W.H. It can also be shredded into long strips which are woven together to form a seafood birdsnest. Web. The leaves are large to very large, 20–150 cm (7.9–59.1 in) long, with a sagittate shape. After that, it is stir-fried in lots of vegetable oil in a casserole until golden brown, then a large amount of wedged, melted onions are added, in addition to water, chickpeas and some seasoning. It was a regional staple before rice became predominant. Sustainable Agriculture, This page was last edited on 14 January 2021, at 23:10. The delicate gaderi (taro variety) of Kumaon, especially from Lobanj, Bageshwar district, is much sought after. It spread by cultivation eastward into Southeast Asia, East Asia and the Pacific Islands; westward to Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean Basin; and then southward and westward from there into East Africa and West Africa, where it spread to the Caribbean and Americas. Taro is related to Xanthosoma and Caladium, plants commonly grown ornamentally, and like them, it is sometimes loosely called elephant ear. [6], They are herbaceous perennial plants with a large corm on or just below the ground surface. Plants of the Arum Family. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Highly variable, the species can produce many leaf forms and sizes. Corms with flesh which is white throughout are referred to as minty-coco. For example, at the Kursi church mosaic. In Maharashtra, the leaves are called aloo and are used to make a sweet and sour curry with peanuts and cashew nuts that is commonly cooked during marriages. Taro root is part of the Araceae family. The leaves are sometimes cooked into soups and stews. Colocasia is a tender perennial that cannot survive winter months in many places. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. ", "A Brief History of Taro in Hawai`i ." [55][56], Important aspects of Hawaiian culture revolve around kalo cultivation and consumption. Herinrich Wilhelm Schott who is one of the most important plant taxonomists of the 19th Century dedicated a large part of his life to the Araceae family. In Gujarat, arbi leaves are used to make the dish patra. In Gujarat, it is called patar vel or saryia na paan. In Venezuela, taro is called ocumo chino or chino and used in soups and sancochos. 8 p. http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/SA-1.pdf. Sliced taro corms, deep fried in oil and mixed with red chili powder and salt, are known as 'saru chips'. The root of the taro plant is often served boiled, accompanied by stewed fish or meat, curried, often with peas and eaten with roti, or in soups. Meaning_of_the_name. Taveuni now exports pest-damage-free crops. The corms are larger than what would be found in North American supermarkets. Acra is a very popular street food in Haiti. There are 6 species, occurring from India to Polynesia. C. esculenta is a perennial, herbaceous rodless plant. Roots are large, underground tuberous rhizome. This is then wrapped traditionally in a banana leaf (nowadays, aluminum foil is often used) and put in the ʻumu to cook. Leaves and corms of shola kochu and maan kochu are also used to make some popular traditional dishes. Dishes made of taro include saru besara (taro in mustard and garlic paste). The smaller variety of taro is more popular in the north due to its tenderness. The genus Colocasia includes six species of tuberous perennials from tropical Asia, grown there as a staple food. The species is so variable it has acquired a long list of scientific names (see partial list of synonyms above). The most popular dish is a spicy curry made with prawn and taro corms. This taro plant has saponin-like substances that cause a hot, itchy feeling in the mouth and throat. The path can be up to 25 cm (10 in) long. The adult plant will need a minimum of at least 1 m2 (11 sq ft) of space for good growth. The taro is steamed and then mashed into a thick paste, which forms the base of the dessert. Also, another variety called maan kochu is consumed and is a rich source of vitamins and nutrients. The Hawaii Agricultural Statistics Service determined the 10-year median production of kalo in Hawaii to be about 6.1 million pounds (2,800 t). The leaves are often boiled with coconut milk to make a soup. 2006. One of the main differences that people do not notice is in the difference in the characteristics of the leaves. In Northern China, it is often boiled or steamed then peeled and eaten with or without sugar much like a potato. The root is also baked (Talo tao) in the umu or boiled with coconut cream (Faálifu Talo). The leaves and stems are not consumed in Lebanon and the variety grown produces round to slightly oblong tubers that vary in size from a tennis ball to a small cantaloupe. No porridge form is known in the local cuisine. The loʻi is part of an ahupuaʻa, a division of land from the mountain to the sea. In the southeastern United States, this plant is recognized as an invasive species. The dasheen variety, commonly planted in swamps, is rare, although appreciated for its taste. It is known as amadumbe (plural) or idumbe (singular) in the Zulu language of Southern Africa. Sri Lankans eat corms after boiling them or making them into a curry with coconut milk. Arbi is also a very popular dish among the Hindu community in South Africa, where it is known as patha. The names elephant-ear and cocoyam are also used for some other large-leaved genera in the Araceae, notably Xanthosoma and Caladium. Similar dishes are prepared from the long root-like structures called kosu thuri. It is also prepared as part of a lentil soup with crushed garlic and lemon juice. Nowadays taro is used more often in desserts. Cho, John J, Yamakawa, Roy A., and James Hollyer. The plants can be damaged if temperatures fall below 10 °C (50 °F) for more than a few days. 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