But economic dependency has also meant that, after political independence, most previously colonised countries have been unable to secure the economic freedom they had been promised (Faraclas, 1993). The traditional landowners, however, dispute these claims, and are asking for the return of their land or are demanding massive monetary compensation. Under the colonial rule, the notion of education in PNG had been transformed from a traditional into a "western" one. Most of the discussion on development in the literature (for example, Fagerlind and Saha, 1989) revolves around four models, notably: the classic cyclical model, the Augustine Christian model, the Linear model, and the cyclical linear model. The cash economy capacity of the country is very limited. Henningham and May (1992:1) further maintain: Hundreds have been killed, property worth millions of dollars has been destroyed or damaged, production at one of the world's largest copper and gold mines has ceased, and the political stability and integrity of the largest of the Pacific Island countries has been challenged. The Foot Report suggested that a House of Assembly be established with fewer representatives of the Administration and more elected indigenous members. It must be rejected because it is based on the colonisers’ false entitlement to define what knowledge is (Ramose, 1999: iii). Since land is the major collateral used by farmers, the inability to obtain secure title results in reduced access to credit. Waiko (1993:254-255) maintains: Most Papua New Guineans still live in societies which have many of the characteristics of the Stone Age. The PNG Public Service recruits officers not only on the basis of bureaucratic performance and qualifications but also on a commitment to tribal values. The Assembly consisted of sixty-four members, forty-four of whom represented Open Electorates based on population, ten officials of the Australian Administration and another ten Europeans appointed by the Government. The rationale for the government's economic policies, which encourage foreign investment, is that it needs the foreign capital to be able to fund the cultural, educational and welfare programs that Papua New Guineans need. People travel by plane and motor boats, but they still sail the open seas by outrigger canoes. New personal and group identities have been forged in order to relate to the new institutions established in different places: political groupings, commercial ventures, trade unions, and recreational and professional associations. h�b```f``�c`a`�sc`@ &�(G#�#��`d`�ѹ�!��f��������e�4,�Pq֜j����|-u&��7ug-۔�K���KS����9s�̞=gN!14
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Colonialism is a practice or policy of control by one people or power over other people or areas, often by establishing colonies and generally with the aim of economic dominance. The luluais and tultuls received their orders from the Kiaps (Rowley, 1986). It suggested that more Europeans might need to be recruited both in public and private sectors to quicken the pace of development. While this was happening in Africa, the same colonial powers, namely the British, the Germans and the French, were also seeking new territories in the Pacific. For the colonised, on the one hand, it often meant the loss of self-identity and self-respect, replaced by feelings of inferiority and fear. They see themselves as people of New Ireland, Manus, East New Britain, Papuans or Highlanders. This pattern of dependency is most evident in the government's expenditure of more than K9 million annually as discretionary funds (Budget Speech, 1993). The theoretical literature surrounding it is littered with controversy (Drakakis-Smith, 1992). PDF | A brief history of the education system introduced by colonial governments in the Philippines. The 1960s and 1970s were marked as an era of decolonisation, especially in Africa (Boehan, 1987). No longer are colonial activities linked to the desire of one nation-state to conquer another and control its means of production. The Third World countries have needed funds for development. After touring many parts of the Territory, and consulting different sections of the community, officials of the World Bank emphasised three policy areas. On Ponam, contact put old forms of social organization and practice into a new context and led to creation of the new forms. After independence many of these mausmen assumed positions of considerable power, and became part of a new political elite within the regions, with their relationship to the centre largely unchanged. 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